Tie grail of physics found New theory of what was after the Big Bang

The holy grail of physics found? A new theory of what was after the Big Bang

What followed the Big Bang is explained by the Grand Unification Theory. In order to confirm any of its existing versions, proton decay must be observed (as yet undiscovered). A duo of scientists, including a Pole, proposed a version of the theory without proton decay.

Everything in our Universe that sets particles in motion and keeps them in check can be boiled down to four interactions. These are the gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions. It is believed that once – Just after the Big Bang – These interactions were a unity. As the Universe cooled, they began to separate from each other.

And so now: electromagnetic interaction (between particles with electric charge) is carried by photons. The strong interaction – które occur, e.g. between quarks – carry gluons. And the weak interaction – it is due to it that there is e.g. radioactivity – they carry W+ and W- bosons and a Z boson. Gravitational interaction, on the other hand, it is assumed, could be carried by gravitons (such particles have never yet been observed).

Bonding theories

If it were possible to find wspóThe common denominator of all these four interactions and combine their action in spóina theory, we would get the Theory of Everything. That would be something! The problem is gravity, która to the other three interactions fits like a fist to a nose.

So for now, physicists have set themselves a slightly easier task: to describe what happened momenta póΕΊ after the Big Bang, when three of the four interactions (electromagnetic, strong and weak) were still unity. The theory, whichóra would show wspóThe lne origin of these forces is called the Grand Unification Theory (GUT). (The peak below is the Standard Model, whichóry combine electromagnetic and weak interaction).

Stubborn protons

Scientists are considering róThe various versions of the Grand Unification Theory, but they all have a serious problem – predict the existence of a specific phenomenon: proton decay.

The proton – a component of the nucleus of the atom – consists of three quarksów and perhaps the system is invariant. Proton decay could be observed experimentally e.g. In a pool full of ultrapure water. Thus, scientists around the world in properly planned experimentsów have been staring into such pools for years and looking for a signalów. But they have not yet registered a trace ofóIn the decay of even a single proton. Protons, therefore, either do not decay at all, or decay very rarely – less than once in 10,000. quintillionóin years (quintillion has 30 zeros behind the one).

So researchers have been looking for such a version of the Grand Unification Theory, whichóra would predict that the proton, however, may never decay. And this is what we have now managed to dwóm scientists – Dr. Bartosz Fornal and prof. Benjamin Grinstein. The scientists’ research (they work at the University of California, San Diego) was published Wednesday in the prestigious "Physical Review Letters".

Symmetry aesthetics a fool’s errandów: broken 5-, 10-, 40- and 50-angles

In this theory – it is the so-called. Four-dimensional Grand Unification Theory based on the SU(5) group – particles appear in sets – multiplets. – To describe all the particles of the Standard Model we need two multiplets: 5 and 10. It can be imagined, as a pentagon and a regular decagon. Their edges are ródifferent quarks and leptons. The symmetry of this arrangement can be understood as invariability due to the rotation of such a figure by a certain angle, Dr. Fornal says.

And he explains that if the symmetry is broken – imagine it as if, as the Universe cools, the 5-angle and 10-angle hit the ground and break into pieces – the multiplets decay into Standard Model particles. – We added to this model 40-angle and 50-angle. We have chosen the values of the parameterów, that when the symmetry is broken, the elements of 5- and 10-anglesów merge with the elements of the 40- and 50-angleóin and all particles of the Standard Model are given proper masses. And in doing so, we avoid interactions thatóre cause proton decay,” said Dr. Fornal.

Colorful sextet sought!

A theory is a theory, but how to check if it is true? For this you would need to observe during the experimentów certain characteristic particles predicted by a Pole and an American. – One of them is the color sextet. It is known what its properties are. Large Hadron Colliderów has already been searching for these particles for a few years,” says Dr. Fornal. And adds that the existence of the color sextet was already assumed by someóre earlier theories. However, the zarówno color sextet as well as other particles thatóhe existence of which is predicted by the new version of GUT, are particles with very large masses and may prove experimentally inaccessible for the time being. However, registering them would be possible in gas pedals with very high collision energies.

At the Large Hadron CollideróAt CERN, the energy of collisions is less than 14 tera-electron voltsów (thousands of billions ofów electron voltów), and Dr. Fornal mówi that in order to confirm the new theory, a gas pedal with several times higher collision energies (approx. 100 tera-electronvoltów). However, in order to design, finance and build such a powerful gas pedal, mankind needs to make a gigantic effort, and it will take some time to do so.

Sourceóbackground: PAP – Science in Poland , Ludwika Tomala, fot. Geralt/Pixabay

Related Posts