Previously unknown structure discovered in lymph nodes

Previously unknown structure discovered in lymph nodes

For the first time in decades, scientists have identified a new microorganism in the immune system. The previously unknown structure is responsible for “remembering” previous infections and acts as a biological headquarters in planning a counterattack against the infection.

Our bodies still keep secrets from us. Researchers at Australia’s Garvan Institute of Medical Research have identified a new, previously unknown microorganism in the immune system of mice and humans. This is the first such discovery in decades, and could lead to a better understanding of how vaccines work, and thus to the development of better formulationsów.

In a study published in „Nature Communications” Australian scientists have identified where the immune system stores the "memorized" previous infections and vaccinations. Comórk of the immune system gather there to get a quick response against infection, with któThe organism had already dealt with.

The new structures were named by the scientists SPF (subcapsular proliferative foci – subcorneal foci of proliferation) and have been discovered through advanced 3D microscopy techniques. Researchers watched the actions of the immune system in action in a live mouse. It was then that they noticed covered by many comóThe immune system’s structure located in its lymph nodes. Its strategic placement allows the infection to be caught quickly and równie to react quickly.

Importantly, a collection of comóThe immune recs spotted by the researchers in the SPF include the so-called “immune system”. comórki memory – A type of B lymphocyte, który is formed during primary infection with a pathogen. These comórki móbind to the immune system, howób to fight a specific infection. Comómemory cells then transform intoóplasma cells to produce antibodies and fight off the threat.

– It was exciting to see that the comómemory cells are activated and cluster in this new structure, whichóra has never been seen before – said Imogen Moran, coóauthor of the publication. – We have seen how they move, interacting with all the other cellsórkami of the immune system and turning into cellsóplasma cells before our eyes – added.

The effects of vaccines are based on centuries of research showing that when the body encounters a particular type of infection, it will better móhead to defend against it the next time. Mankind has known this since the plague in Athens in 430 p.n.e. However, questions remained about how theób body can quickly fight back when it encounters an infection, on któhe was previously exposed to.

New study suggests SPF may be key to how our bodies "remembers" immunity. This is something like the biological headquarters of the headóin planning a counterattack to the infection.

This structure appears to appear only when the immune system is fighting infections, które encountered before. This was the case in mice. What’s more, scientists have detected róAlso similar structures in human lymph nodes, suggesting that our bodies respond in the same wayób.

– When you’re fighting bacteria, które can double every 20-30 minutes, every moment matters. Móengaging without ogreódek if twój immune system takes too long to gather the tools to fight the infection, you die. This is why vaccines are so important. Vaccination trains the immune system so that it can produce antibodies very quickly when an infection reappears. Until now, we didn’t know how or where this was happening – said Tri Phan, one of the authors of theóin the publication.

The researchers believe that the microorganism has not been detected before because of its size and the fact that it occurs temporarily. For this previously, scientists have not had the right tools. These structures are strategically placed at points where theórych attack bacteria and contain all the components necessary to stop the infection.

– We are looking at the tissues of our organismsóin through a microscope for more than 300 years, and we are still discovering new mysteries. It’s remarkable – emphasized Phan.

Now that we know how the body defends itself, we can improve the development of new vaccines. Currently, when developing vaccines, scientists are focusing on B lymphocytes, the ones responsible for memory. – Our research indicates that we should focus on understanding how comómemory cells are activated and how they turn into comóplasma cells. It will help us improve this process – explained Phan.

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